Liquidity and capital resources

Principal sources of funding

We meet our liquidity needs principally using cash from operations, proceeds from the issuance of debt instruments (bonds and commercial paper), and short-term bank borrowings.

During 2018, 2017 and 2016, our financial position was strengthened by the positive total cash flow from operating activities (both from continuing and discontinued operations) of $2,924 million, $3,799 million and $3,843 million, respectively.

Our net debt is shown in the table below:


December 31,

($ in millions)



Short-term debt and current maturities of long-term debt



Long-term debt



Cash and equivalents



Marketable securities and short-term investments



Net debt (defined as the sum of the above lines)



Net debt at December 31, 2018, increased $2,662 million compared to December 31, 2017, as cash flows from operating activities during 2018 of $2,924 million was more than offset by cash outflows for acquisitions of businesses ($2,664 million) (primarily GEIS), the dividend payment to our shareholders ($1,717 million), net purchases of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets ($700 million) and amounts paid to purchase treasury stock ($250 million). Other significant transactions affecting our liquidity included the issuance of treasury shares for $42 million and payments of dividends to noncontrolling shareholders of $86 million. There was no significant movement in net debt due to changes in foreign exchange rates. See “Financial position”, “Investing activities” and “Financing activities” for further details.

Our Group Treasury Operations is responsible for providing a range of treasury management services to our group companies, including investing cash in excess of current business requirements. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the proportion of our aggregate “Cash and equivalents” and “Marketable securities and short-term investments” managed by our Group Treasury Operations amounted to approximately 38 percent and 49 percent, respectively.

Throughout 2018 and 2017, the investment strategy for cash (in excess of current business requirements) has generally been to invest in short-term time deposits with maturities of less than 3 months, supplemented at times by investments in corporate commercial paper, money market funds, and in some cases, government securities. During 2018 and 2017, we also continued to place limited funds in connection with reverse repurchase agreements. We actively monitor credit risk in our investment portfolio and hedging activities. Credit risk exposures are controlled in accordance with policies approved by our senior management to identify, measure, monitor and control credit risks. We have minimum rating requirements for our counterparts and closely monitor developments in the credit markets making appropriate changes to our investment policy as deemed necessary. In addition to minimum rating criteria, we have strict investment parameters and specific approved instruments as well as restrictions on the types of investments we make. These parameters are closely monitored on an ongoing basis and amended as we consider necessary.

Our cash is held in various currencies around the world. Approximately 24 percent of our cash and cash equivalents held at December 31, 2018, was in U.S. dollars, while other significant amounts were held in Chinese renminbi (28 percent), euro (17 percent) and Indian rupee (6 percent).

We believe the cash flows generated from our business, supplemented, when necessary, through access to the capital markets (including short-term commercial paper) and our credit facilities are sufficient to support business operations, capital expenditures, business acquisitions, the payment of dividends to shareholders and contributions to pension plans. Consequently, we believe that our ability to obtain funding from these sources will continue to provide the cash flows necessary to satisfy our working capital and capital expenditure requirements, as well as meet our debt repayments and other financial commitments for the next twelve months. See “Disclosures about contractual obligations and commitments”.

Due to the nature of our operations, including the timing of annual incentive payments to employees, our cash flow from operations generally tends to be weaker in the first half of the year than in the second half of the year.

Debt and interest rates

Total outstanding debt was as follows:


December 31,

($ in millions)



Short-term debt and current maturities of long-term debt



Long-term debt:






Other long-term debt



Total debt



The increase in short-term debt in 2018 was due to the reclassification from long-term debt of our EUR 1,250 million 2.625% instruments due in 2019, offset by the repayment in 2018 of the CHF 350 million 1.5% Bonds. In addition, we increased the amount of issued commercial paper ($464 million outstanding at December 31, 2018, compared to $259 million outstanding at December 31, 2017).

At December 31, 2018, Long-term debt remained at a similar amount to the end of 2017 as the issuance in 2018 of three bonds with net proceeds totaling $1,494 million was offset by the reclassification to short-term debt of the EUR 1,250 million bond discussed above, which had a book value of $1,493 million at the end of 2017.

Our debt has been obtained in a range of currencies and maturities and on various interest rate terms. For certain of our debt obligations, we use derivatives to manage the fixed interest rate exposure. For example, we use interest rate swaps to effectively convert fixed rate debt into floating rate liabilities. After considering the effects of interest rate swaps, the effective average interest rate on our floating rate long-term debt (including current maturities) of $3,106 million and our fixed rate long-term debt (including current maturities) of $4,951 million was 1.1 percent and 3.6 percent, respectively. This compares with an effective rate of 0.6 percent for floating rate long-term debt of $3,213 million and 3.5 percent for fixed rate long-term debt of $3,878 million at December 31, 2017.

For a discussion of our use of derivatives to modify the interest characteristics of certain of our individual bond issuances, see “Note 12 Debt” to our Consolidated Financial Statements.

Credit facility

We have a $2 billion multicurrency revolving credit facility expiring in 2021 that is available for general corporate purposes. No amount was drawn under the credit facility at December 31, 2018 and 2017. The facility contains cross-default clauses whereby an event of default would occur if we were to default on indebtedness, as defined in the facility, at or above a specified threshold.

The credit facility does not contain financial covenants that would restrict our ability to pay dividends or raise additional funds in the capital markets. For further details of the credit facility, see “Note 12 Debt” to our Consolidated Financial Statements.

Commercial paper

At December 31, 2018, we had two commercial paper programs in place:

  • a $2 billion commercial paper program for the private placement of U.S. dollar denominated commercial paper in the United States, and
  • a $2 billion Euro-commercial paper program for the issuance of commercial paper in a variety of currencies.

At December 31, 2018, $292 million was outstanding under the $2 billion program in the United States, compared to $259 million outstanding at December 31, 2017. At March 27, 2019, the amount outstanding under this program had increased to $825 million.

At December 31, 2018, $172 million was outstanding under the $2 billion Euro-commercial paper program. No amount was outstanding under this program at December 31, 2017. At March 27, 2019, the amount outstanding under this program had increased to $509 million.

European program for the issuance of debt

The European program for the issuance of debt allows the issuance of up to the equivalent of $8 billion in certain debt instruments. The terms of the program do not obligate any third party to extend credit to us and the terms and possibility of issuing any debt under the program are determined with respect to, and as of the date of issuance of, each debt instrument. During 2017, we issued EUR 750 million 0.75% Notes, due 2024, and during 2016, we issued EUR 700 million 0.625% Notes, due 2023, under the program. At December 31, 2018, three bonds (principal amount of EUR 1,250 million, due in 2019, principal amount of EUR 700 million, due in 2023 and principal amount of EUR 750 million, due in 2024) having a combined carrying amount of $3,100 million, were outstanding under the program. At December 31, 2017, the same three bonds were outstanding having a combined carrying amount of $3,216 million. At March 27, 2019, it was more than 12 months since the program had been updated. New bonds could be issued under the program but could not be listed without us formally updating the program.

Credit ratings

Credit ratings are assessments by the rating agencies of the credit risk associated with ABB and are based on information provided by us or other sources that the rating agencies consider reliable. Higher ratings generally result in lower borrowing costs and increased access to capital markets. Our ratings are of “investment grade” which is defined as Baa3 (or above) from Moody’s and BBB− (or above) from Standard & Poor’s.

At both December 31, 2018 and 2017, our long-term debt was rated A2 by Moody’s and A by Standard & Poor’s.

Limitations on transfers of funds

Currency and other local regulatory limitations related to the transfer of funds exist in a number of countries where we operate, including: China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, South Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan (Chinese Taipei), Thailand and Turkey. Funds, other than regular dividends, fees or loan repayments, cannot be readily transferred offshore from these countries and are therefore deposited and used for working capital needs in those countries. In addition, there are certain countries where, for tax reasons, it is not considered optimal to transfer the cash offshore. As a consequence, these funds are not available within our Group Treasury Operations to meet short-term cash obligations outside the relevant country. The above described funds are reported as cash in our Consolidated Balance Sheets, but we do not consider these funds immediately available for the repayment of debt outside the respective countries where the cash is situated, including those described above. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the balance of “Cash and equivalents” and “Marketable securities and other short-term investments” under such limitations (either regulatory or sub-optimal from a tax perspective) totaled approximately $1,796 million and $2,010 million, respectively.

During 2018 we continued to direct our subsidiaries in countries with restrictions to place such cash with our core banks or investment grade banks, in order to minimize credit risk on such cash positions. We continue to closely monitor the situation to ensure bank counterparty risks are minimized.